Brain & Spinal Injury
Welcome to the Brain & Spinal Injury Section
Welcome to the Brain Injury Help Section for the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies. Whether a brain injury results from a trauma such as auto or bicycle collision, a fall, sports injury, or medical event such as a stroke, embolism, or loss of oxygen, you will have access to the information you need to learn about brain injury and behavior analysis here at Behavior.org.
Our webpages describe the various aspects of brain injury and many of the behavioral challenges to everyday activities. Sometimes these challenges may be prevalent immediately after an injury; however, it is not uncommon for a person to exhibit problems many years after an injury. These problems may range from confusion and fatigue to severe agitation, aggression, and depression.
You will learn about some of the ABA techniques used in the treatment of brain injury, such as reinforcement, shaping, fading, prompting, fluency, errorless discrimination training and stimulus control.
Many of these techniques can help teach and strengthen daily skills, as well as reduce challenging behaviors that interfere with rehabilitation and successful progress.
Our science dates back many years with contributions from early physiologists, experimental psychologists, and others who conducted groundbreaking experiments using controlled environments to study the behavior of individual subjects. Based on this research, Applied Behavior Analysis has emerged as a comprehensive approach to addressing many of problems encountered by individuals, societies, and cultures. Positive and robust changes in understanding behavior has lead to advances in treating children and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Developmental / Intellectual Disabilities, Geriatrics, and Medicine, as well as the Brain Injury treatment.
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) and Brain Injury
Brain Injuries & Behavior Changes
Behavior can be affected by a brain injury in many ways, creating challenges for the individual receiving the injury as well as for loved ones and family. The role of the behavior analyst can often make a difference in recovery because behavioral strategies can address many of the different facets that enhance better outcomes.
- Decision Making and Planning
- Sequencing and Organization
- Attention and Perception
- Reading and Writing Skills
- Thought Processing Speed
- Problem Solving Skills
- Thought Flexibility
- Safety Awareness
- New Learning
- Muscle Movement and Coordination
- Hearing, Vision, Taste, Smell, Touch
- Sexual Functioning
- Social Skills
- Emotional Control and Mood Swings
- Appropriateness of Behavior (Self-Monitoring Remarks & Actions)
- Reduced Self-Esteem
- Depression (Agitated Type)*
- Anxiety & Frustration
- Anger Management
- Coping Skills
- Irritability or Agitation
- Excessive Laughing or Crying
Right-Side Brain Injury and Behavior Changes
- Visual-Spatial Impairment
- Visual Memory Deficits
- Left-Side Neglect
- Decreased Awareness of Deficits
- Altered Creativity and Music Perception
- Loss of “The Big Picture” Type of Thinking
- Decreased Control Over Left-Sided Body Movements
Left-Side Brain Injury and Behavior Changes
- Difficulties in Understanding Language (Receptive)
- Difficulties in Speaking or Verbal Output (Expressive)
- Catastrophic Reactions (Depression/Anxiety)
- Verbal Memory Deficits
- Impaired Logic
- Sequencing Difficulties
- Decreased Control Over Right-Sided body Movements
Diffuse (Left/Right) Brain Injury and Behavior Changes
- Reduced Thinking Speed
- Reduced Attention and Concentration
- Impaired Cognitive Skills in All Areas
Skills Acquisition, Teaching & Rehabilitation
Recovering from a brain injury requires a team of dedicated professionals skilled in brain injury rehabilitation. From acute care to vocational training and community integration, rehabilitation is pivotal for individuals to achieve the best outcome and recovery.
It is not uncommon for individuals to display a variety of challenging behavioral problems that interfere with rehabilitation, which include agitation, aggression, hostility, as well as depression, loss of motivation, and emotional dysregulation. When these behavioral problems are present, rehabilitation is frequently delayed or postponed indefinitely, which impedes full recovery.
Applied Behavior Analysis has been used in the treatment of these interfering behaviors so that effective rehabilitation can be resumed and bringing hope to the individual and his or her loved ones. Additionally, applied behavior analysis has been used to teach individuals to act upon his or her world more effectively. Among the techniques include Errorless Learning, Shaping and Fading, Fluency, and Precision Teaching.
Skill Acquisitionand Brain Injury
Following a brain injury, an individual may need to acquire lost activities of daily living, academic skills, community skills, or social skills. For decades, applied behavior analysis has provided skill acquisition and teaching techniques to enhance greater independence and quality of life. The literature generated in this area is immense and points to successes in areas never before achieved in education.
Applied behavior analysis has utilized procedures generated from the laboratory and translated into practice:
- Errorless Teaching
- Fluency and Precision Teaching
- Behavioral Momentum
- Shaping, Fading, Prompting, & Modeling
Applied Behavior Analysis and Brain Injury Bibliography
Allen, D.N., Donohue, B., Sutton, G., Haderlie, M., & LaPota, H. (2009). Application of a standardized assessment methodology within the context of an evidence-based treatment for substance abuse and its associated problems. Behavior Modification, 33, 618-654.
Axelrod, S., McElrath, K.K., & Wine, B. (2012). Applied Behavior Analysis: Autism and Beyond. Behavioral Interventions, 27, 1-15.
Bruce, S., Gurdin, L.S., & Savage, R. (2006). Strategies for managing challenging behaviors of students with brain injuries. Lash & Associates Publishing/Training, Inc.
Arikiasamy, C.M., Braunling-McMorrow, D., & Moss, G.R. (1990). The TBI Annual Research Index, Volume 1, Orlando, Florida: Paul M. Deutsch Press.
Arikiasamy, C.M., Braunling-McMorrow, D., & Moss, G.R. (1990). The TBI Annual Research Index, Volume 2, Orlando, Florida: Paul M. Deutsch Press.
Braunling-McMorrow, D. (1988). Behavior rehabilitation, in Deutsch, P., and Fralish, K., Innovations in Head Injury Rehabilitation, New York, New York: Matthew Bender & Company.
Braunling-McMorrow, D. (1988). Social skills training for persons with brain injury, in Deutsch, P., and Fralish, K., Innovations in Head Injury Rehabilitation, New York, New York: Matthew Bender & Company.
Braunling-McMorrow, D. (1997). Promoting effective socialization for persons with brain injury, in Fralish, K. and McMorrow, M., Innovations in Brain Injury Rehabilitation (update), New York, New York: Matthew Bender & Company.
Braunling-McMorrow, D. (1998). Rehabilitation outcomes for life, in Fralish, K. and McMorow, M., Innovations in Brain Injury Rehabilitation (update), New York, New York: Matthew Bender & Company.
Braunling-McMorrow, D., Dollinger, S., Gould, M., Neumann, T., Hilingenthal, R. (2010). Outcomes of post-acute rehabilitation for persons with brain injury, Brain Injury, 24, 7-8.
Buzan, R.D., Kupfer, J., Eastridge, D., & Lema-Hincapie, A. (2014). Philosophy of mind: Coming to terms with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurorehabilitation, (IN PRESS).
Chapman, S.S., Ewing, C.B., Mozzoni, M.P. (2005). Precision teaching and fluency training across cognitive, physical, and academic tasks in children with traumatic brain injury: A multiple baseline study. Behavioral Interventions, 20, 37-49.
Cowley, B.J., Green, G., & Braunling-McMorrow, D. (1992). Using stimulus equivalence procedures to teach name-face matching to adults with brain injuries. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 461-475.
Crane, A.A & Joyce, B.G. (1991). Brief report: Cool Down: A procedure for decreasing aggression in adults with traumatic head injury. Behavioral Interventions, 6, 65-75.
Davis, P.K. & Chittum, R. (1994). A group-oriented contingency to increase leisure activities of adults with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 553-554.
Dise-Lewis, J.e., Calvery, M.L., & Lewis, H.C. (2002). BrainSTARS. Lash & Associates Publishing/Training, Inc.
Dixon, M.R., Guercio, J., Falcomata, T., Horner, M.J., Root, S., Newell, C., & Zlomke, K. (2004). Exploring the utility of functional analysis methodology to assess and treat problematic verbal behavior in persons with acquired brain injury. Behavioral Interventions, 19, 91-102.
Dixon, M.R., Horner, M.J., & Guercio, J. (2003). Self-control and the preference for delayed reinforcement: An example in brain injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 371-374.
Dixon, M.R. & Falcomata, T.S. (2004). Preference for progressive delays and concurrent physical therapy exercise in an adult with acquired brain injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 101-105.
Dixon, M.R., Jacobs, E.A., Sanders, S., Guercio, J.M., Soldner, J., Parker-Singler, S., Robinson, A., Small, S., Dillen, J.E. (2005). Impulsivity, self-control, and delay discounting in persons with acquired brain injury. Behavioral Interventions, 20, 101-120.
Dixon, M.R. & Tibbetts, P.A. (2009). The effects of choice on self-control. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42, 243-252.
Dolezal, D.N. & Kurtz, P.F. (2010). Evaluation of combined-antecedent variables on functional analysis results and treatment of problem behavior in a school setting. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43, 309-314.
Ducharme, J.M. & Rushford, N. (2001). Proximal and distal effects of play on child compliance with a brain injured parent. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 221-224.
Eastridge, D. & Mozzoni, M.P. (2005). Fluency and functional motor skills following brain injury. Behavioral Interventions, 20, 77-89.
Feldner, M.T., Monson, C.M. & Friedman, M.J. (2007). A critical analysis of approaches to targeted PTSD prevention: Current status and theoretically derived future directions. Behavior Modification, 31, 80-116.
Foxx, R.M., Marchand-Martella, N.E., Martella, R.C., Braunling-McMorrow, D., & McMorrow, M.J. (1988). Teaching a problem-solving strategy to closed head-injured adults. Behavioral Interventions, 3, 193-210.
Fyffe, C.E., Kahng, S., Fittro, E., & Russell, D. (2004). Functional analysis and treatment of inappropriate sexual behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 401-404.
Green, G. (1991). Everyday stimulus equivalences for the brain-injured. In W. Ishaq (ed.), Human behavior in today’s world (pp. 123-132). New York: Praeger.
Geren, M.A., Stromer, R., & Mackay, H.A. (1997). Picture naming, matching to sample, and head injury: A stimulus control analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 339-342.
Guercio, J.M., Dixon, M.R., Soldner, J., Shoemaker, Z., Zlomke, K., Root, S., & Small, S. (2005). Enhancing staff performance measures in an acquired brain injury setting: Combating the habituation to organizational behavioral interventions. Behavioral Interventions, 20, 91-99.
Gurdin, L.S., Huber, S.A., & Cochran, C.R. (2005). A critical analysis of data-based studies examining behavioral interventions with children and adolescents with brain injuries. Behavioral Interventions, 20, 3-16.
Haddock, C.K., Poston, W., & Taylor, J. (2003). Neurocognitive sequelae following coronary artery bypass graft: A research agenda for behavioral scientists. Behavior Modification, 27, 68-82.
Hartnedy, S.L. & Mozzoni, M.P. (2000). Managing environmental stimulation during meal time: Eating problems in children with traumatic brain injury. Behavioral Interventions, 15, 261-268.
Hartnedy, S.L., Mozzoni, M.P., & Fahoum, Y. (2005). The effect of fluency training on math and reading skills in neuropsychiatric diagnosis children: A multiple baseline design. Behavioral Interventions, 20, 27-36.
Hegel, M.T. & Ferguson, R.J. (2000). Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DR0) to reduce aggressive behavior following traumatic brain injury. Behavior Modification, 24, 94-101.
Hegel, M.T. & Martin, J.B. (1998). Behavioral treatment of pulsatile tinnitus and headache following traumatic head injury: Objective polygraphic assessment of change. Behavior Modification, 22, 563-572.
Heinicke, M.R. & Carr, J.E. (2014). Applied behavior analysis in acquired brain injury rehabilitation: A meta-analysis of single-case design intervention research. Behavioral Interventions, 29, 77-105.
Heinicke, M. R, Carr, J. E., Eastridge, D., Kupfer, J. & Mozzoni, M. P. (2013). Assessing preferences of individuals with acquired brain injury using alternative stimulus modalities. Brain Injury, 27, 48-59.
Heinicke, M.R., Carr, J.E., & Mozzoni, M.P. (2009). Using differential reinforcement to decrease academic response latencies of an adolescent with acquired brain injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42, 861-865.
Jacobs, H. E. (1993). Behavior analysis guidelines and brain injury rehabilitation: People, principles and programs. Aspen, Gaithersburg.
Johnson, K. & Davis, P.K. (1998). A supported relationships intervention to increase the social integration of persons with trumatic brain injuries. Behavior Modification, 22, 502-528.
Killeen, P.R. & Glenberg, A.M. (2010). Resituating cognition. Comparative Cognition and Behavior Reviews, 4, 66-85.
Kirshner, H. & Sidman, M. (1972). Scanning patterns in aphasic patients during matching-to-sample. Neuropsychologia, 10, 179-184.
Kubina, R.M., Ward, M.C., & Mozzoni, M. (2000). Helping one person at a time: Precision teaching and traumatic brain injury rehabilitation. Behavioral Interventions, 15, 189-203.
Langthorne, P., McGill, P., & Oliver, C. (2014). The motivational operation and negatively reinforced problem behavior: A systematic review. Behavior Modification, 38, 107-159. Lewis, F.D., Blackerby, W.F., Ross, J.R., Guth, M.L., Cronkey, R.F., White, M.J. & Cook, T. (1986). Duration of negative practice and the reduction of leg pounding of a traumatically brain-injured adult. Behavioral Interventions, 1, 265-274.
Lash, M., Braunling-McMorrow, D., Tyler, J., & Antoinette, T. (Editors) (2004). Training Manual for Certified Brain Injury Specialists CBIS, Third Edition, American Academy for the Certification of Brain Injury Specialists.
Leicester, J., Sidman, M., Stoddard, L.T., & Mohr, J.P. (1969). Some determinants of visual neglect. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 32, 580-587.
Leicester, J., Sidman, M., Stoddard, L.T., & Mohr, J.P. (1971). The nature of aphasic responses. Neuropsychologia, 9, 141-155.
Ley, R. (1999). The modification of breathing behavior: Pavlovian and operant control in emotion and cognition. Behavior Modification, 23, 441-479.
Lindsley, O.R. (1964). Direct measurement and prosthesis of retarded behavior. Journal of Education, 147, 62-81.
Luiselli, J.K., Dunn, E.K., & Pace, G.M. (2005). Antecedent assessment and intervention to reduce physical restraint (protective holding) of children and adolescents with acquired brain injury. Behavioral Interventions, 20, 51-65.
Luiselli, J.K., Gardner, R., Arons, M., McDonald, H., Madigan, C., Marchese, N., Peck, E. Potoczny-Gray, A., & Simon, M. (1998). Comprehensive community-based education and neurorehabilitation for children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury, Behavioral Interventions, 13, 181-200.
Luiselli, J.K., Pace, G.M., & Dunn, E.K. (2006). Effects of behavior-contingent and fixed-time release contingencies on frequency and duration of therapeutic restraint. Behavior Modification, 30, 442-445.
Luiselli, J.K., Sherak, D.L., Dunn, E.K., Pace, G.M. (2005). Sexual behaviors among children and adolescents with acquired brain injury: An incidence survey at a community-based neurorehabilitation center. Behavioral Interventions, 20, 17-25.
Lutzker, J.R. & Whitaker, D.J. (2005). The expanding role of behavior analysis and support: Current status and future directions. Behavior Modification, 29, 575-594.
Martelli, M.F., Nicholson, K., & Zaslera, N.D. (2008). Skill reacquisition after acquired brain injury: A holistic habit retraining model of neurorehabilitation. Journal of Neurorehabilitation, 23, 115-126.
Maki, A.L., Rudrud, E.H., Schulze, K.A., & Rapp, J.T. (2008). Increasing therapeutic exercise participation by individuals with acquired brain injury using self-recording and reinforcement. Behavioral Interventions, 23, 75-86.
McMorrow, M., Braunling-McMorrow, D., & Smith, S. (1998). Evaluation of functional outcomes following proactive behavioral-residential treatment, Journal of Rehabilitation Outcomes Measurement, 2 (2) .
McReynolds, L.V. (1969). Application of timeout from positive reinforcement for increasing the efficiency of speech training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 199-205.
Merbitz, C.T., Miller, T.K., & Hansen, N.K. (2000). Cueing and logical problem solving in brain trauma rehabilitation: Frequency patterns in clinician and patient behaviors. Behavioral Interventions, 15, 169-187.
Mohr, J.P., Leicester, J., Stoddard, L.T., & Sidman, M. (1971). Right hemianopia with memory and color deficits in circumscribed left posterior cerebral artery territory infarction. Neurology, 21, 1104-1113.
Mohr, J.P. & Sidman, M. (1975). Aphasia: Behavioral aspects. In M.F. Reiser (ed.), American Handbook of Psychiatry: Second Edition: Vol. 4, Organic Disorders and Psychosomatic Medicine, Basic Books, 279-298.
Mohr, J.P., Sidman, M., Stoddard, L.T., Leicester, J., & Rosenberger, P.B. (1973). Evolution of the deficit in total aphasia. Neurology, 23, 1302-1312.
Mozzoni, M.P. (2005). Preface. Behavioral Interventions, 20, 1-2.
Mozzoni, M. P. & Bailey, J. S. (1996). Improving training methods in brain injury rehabilitation, Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 11, 1-17.
O’Leary, C.A. (2000). Reducing aggression in adults with brain injuries. Behavioral Interventions, 15, 205-216.
O’Reilly, M.F., Green, G., & Braunling-McMorrow, D. (1990). Self-administered written prompts to teach home accident prevention skills to adults with brain injuries. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 431-446.
O’Reilly, M.F. & Cuvo, A.J. (1989). Teaching self treatment of cold symptoms to an anoxic brain injured adult. Behavioral Interventions, 4, 359-375.
O’Reilly, M.F., Green, G., & Braunling-McMorrow, D. (1990). Self-administered written prompts to teach home accident prevention skills to adults with brain injuries. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 431-446.
O’Reilly, M., McNally, D., Sigafoos, J., Lancioni, G.E., Green, V., Edrisinha, C., Machalicek, W., Sorrells, A., Lang, R., & Didden, R. (2008). Examination of a social problem-solving intervention to treat selective mutism. Behavior Modification, 32, 182-195.
Page, T.J., Luce, S.C., & Willis, K. (1992). Rehabilitation of adults with brain injury. Behavioral Interventions, 7, 169-179.
Patrick, P.D., Patrick, S.T., Poole, J.D., & Hostler, S. (2000). Evaluation and treatment of the vegetative and minimally conscious child: A single subject design. Behavioral Interventions, 15, 225-242.
Pace, G.M., Ivancic, M.T., & Jefferson, G. (1994). Stimulus fading as treatment for obscenity in a brain-injured adult. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 301-305.
Phelps, B. J. & Cheney, C. D. (1996). Memory rehabilitation techniques with brain-injured individuals. In Cautela, J. R. & Ishaq, W. (Eds.) Contemporary Issues in behavior therapy: Improving the human condition. Plenum Press, New York.
Putnam, R.F., Handler, M.W., Rey, J., & McCarty, J. (2005). The development of behaviorally based public school consultation services. Behavior Modification, 29, 521-538.
Rehfeldt, R.A. & Dixon, M.R. (2005). Evaluating the establishment and maintenance of visual-visual and gustatory-visual equivalence relations in adults with developmental disabilities. Behavior Modification, 29, 696-707.
Rosenberger, P.B., Mohr, J.P., Stoddard, L.T., & Sidman, M. (1968). Inter- and intramodality deficits in a dysphasic youth. Archives of Neurology, 18, 549-562.
Rosenberger, P.B., Stoddard, L.T., & Sidman, M. (1972). Sample-matching techniques in the study of children’s language. In R.L. Schiefelbusch (Ed.), Language of the mentally retarded. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press, 211-229.
Rozenblat, E., Brown, J.L., Brown, A.K., Reeve, S.A., Reeve, K.F. (2009). Effects of adjusting DRO schedules on the reduction of stereotypic vocalizations in children with autism. Behavioral Interventions, 24, 1-15.
Schlund, M.W. & Pace, G.M. (2000). The experimental analysis of human operant behavior following traumatic brain injury. Behavioral Interventions, 15, 155-168.
Selznick, L. & Savage, R.C. (2000). Using self-monitoring procedures to increase on-task behavior with three adolescent boys with brain injury. Behavioral Interventions, 15, 243-260.
Sidman, M. (1969). Generalization gradients and stimulus control in delayed matching to sample. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12, 745-757.
Sidman, M. (1971). The behavioral analysis of aphasia. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 8, 413-422.
Sidman, M. (1980). Brain and Behavior. In M. Sidman, M. Terman, & C. Soares (Eds.), Interact with psychology 2, Fifth Ed. Dubuque, IA: Kendal/Hunt, 63-105.
Sidman, M., Stoddard, L.T., & Mohr, J.P. (1967). Some additional quantitative observations of immediate memory in a patient with bilateral hippocampal lesions. Neuropsychologia, 6, 245-254.
Sidman, M., Stoddard, L.T., Mohr, J.P., & Leicester, J. (1971). Behavioral studies of aphasia: Methods of investigation and analysis. Neuropsychologia, 9, 119-140.
Stein, N.R., Mills, M.A., Arditte, Kl, Mendoza, C., Borah, A.M., Resick, P.A., Litz, B.T., & STRONG STAR Consortium. (2012). A scheme for categorizing traumatic military events. Behavior Modification, 36, 787-807.
Taub, E. (2012). The behavior-analytic origins of constraint-induced movement therapy: An example of behavioral neurorehabilitation. The Behavior Analyst, 35, 155-178.
Tasky, K.K., Rudrud, E.H., Schulze, K.A., & Rapp, J.T. (2008). Using choice to increase on-task behaviors in individuals with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41, 261-265.
Thompson, T.J., Pearcey, S.M., Bodfish, J.W., Crawford, T.W., & Lewis, M.H. (1995). Stereotyped movement disorder in an adult following acquired brain injury: Effect of environmental stimulation. Behavioral Interventions, 10, 79-85.
Travis, R. & Sturmey, P. (2010). Functional analysis and treatment of delusional statements of a man with multiple disabilities: A four-year follow-up. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43, 745-749.
Tucker, R.A., Green, G., & Braunling-McMorrow, D. (1990). Using written prompts to teach laundry and room cleaning skills to three adults with traumatic brain injuries, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 431-446.
Turner, J.M., Green, G., Braunling-McMorrow, D. (1990). Differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) to reduce dysfunctional social behaviors of a head injured man. Behavioral Interventions, 5, 15-27.
Van Hasselt, V.B., Sheehan, D.C., Malcolm, A.S., Sellers, A.H., Baker, M.T., & Couwels, J. (2008). The law enforcement officer stress survey (LEOSS): Evaluation of psychometric properties. Behavior Modification, 32, 133-151.
Wilder, D.A. & Carr, J.E. (1998). Recent advances in the modification of establishing operations to reduce aberrant behavior. Behavioral Interventions, 13, 43-59.
Wehman, P., West, M., Fry, R.k Sherron, P., Groah, C., Kreutzer, J., & Sale, P. (1989). Effect of supported employment on vocational outcomes of persons with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22, 395-405.
Wesolowski, M.D., Zencius, A.H., McCarthy-Lydon, D., & Lydon, S. (2005). Using behavioral interventions to treat speech disorders in person with head trauma. Behavioral Interventions, 20, 67-75.
Wesolowski, M.D., Zencius, A.H., & Rodriguez, I.M. (1999). Mini-breaks: The use of escape on a fixed-time schedule to reduce unauthorized breaks from vocational training sites for individuals with brain injury. Behavioral Interventions, 14, 163-170.
Wroblewski, B. A., Joseph, A. B., Kupfer, J., & Kalliel, K. (1997). Effectiveness of valproic acid on destructive and aggressive behaviours in patients with acquired brain injury. Brain Injury, 11 (1), 37-47.
Wroblewski, B. A., Joseph, A. B., Kupfer, J., & Kalliel, K. (1997). Effectiveness of valproic acid on destructive and aggressive behaviors in patients with acquired brain injury. American Society of Consultant Pharmacists 28th Annual Meeting Educational Sessions 1997 Handout Book. Alexandria, VA: American Society of Consultant Pharmacists.
Zencius, A.H. & Wesolowski, M.D. (1991). Reducing verbal aggression in adults with brain injury. Behavioral Interventions, 6, 155-164.
Zencius, A.H., Wesolowski, M.D., & Burke, W.H. (1990). The use of a visual cue to reduce profanity in a brain injured adult. Behavioral Interventions, 5, 143-147.
Community Enrichment, Recreation, & Accessibility
A brain injury is a devastating event, but it does not prevent a person from living a rich and fulfilling lifestyle, and with enough planning and support, many people live very productive and happy lives.
Applied behavior analysis can be an important part of this recovery. From learning the necessary pre-requisite skills needed for success in home and community to independent travel and full access, applied behavior analysts assist rehabilitation specialist to promote generalization of skills, increase effectiveness of signs, symbols, and activity schedules, and promote effective problem solving strategies using reinforced practice, role playing, and other simulations.